Artificial intelligence is that part of computer science where the aim is to mimic human intelligence (cognitive functions) and implement it into computers. In the broadest sense, describes the different ways in which a machine interacts with the world around it.
Artificial Intelligence itself is a fairly generic term for solving tasks that are easy for humans, but difficult for computers, so the idea is trying to make computers think the way humans think, being able to simulate the kinds of things humans do, and ultimately solving problems better and faster than us.
It includes all kinds of tasks, such as doing creative work, planning, moving, speaking, recognizing objects and sounds, carrying out social or commercial transactions, etc. The idea is to use the possibilities offered by computers to improve some tasks humans cannot do as efficiently, particularly in the learning and problem-solving aspects.
In the end, it has to be a complement to human natural intelligence.
Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks, and military simulations.
Between the types of artificial intelligence, there is machine learning, deep learning, and neuronal networks. Each one of these is different. I will explain the differences in further posts.
On another hand, it is important not to mistake artificial intelligence with regular programming.