RNA

12.09.2020
  • What is the RNA?

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. RNA and DNA are nucleic acids.

Along with lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, nucleic acids constitute one of the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. 

  • Differences between DNA and RNA

Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA, RNA is found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand. 

Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases of guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs the synthesis of specific proteins. Many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome 

Mostly, RNA possesses an Uracille instead of a Thymine, which leads to hydrogenic bridges between U and A.

Thymine (DNA) 

Uracyle (RNA)

There are 5 types of RNA:

mRNA: messager, it codifies proteins

rRNA: replicant, forms the nucleus of the ribosome, catalyzes the protein synthesis

miRNA:mitochondrial,manages genetic expression

tRNA: transcriptive, acts as an adaptator between mRNA and aminoacids during the protein synthesis

others: smaller RNAs used in the union between elements of RNA, telomers maintenance, and other processes